The reproductive organs of the female include the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. The menstrual cycle is a coordinated process involving hormones produced by the brain, specifically the hypothalamus and the pituitary, the ovaries, and the uterus. Women are born with more than one to two million eggs that are stored in their ovaries. These eggs are depleted over the woman’s reproductive years. In order for an egg to grow and mature, the hypothalamus produces a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
This hormone stimulates the release of two other hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary. It is these hormones that tell the woman’s ovary to grow a follicle. The follicle is a fluid filled structure in the ovary that houses an egg (oocyte). The cells around the egg produce estrogen.
Estrogen causes the uterine lining to thicken in order to prepare for implantation and it regulates the release of FSH and LH. Only one follicle, each housing an egg, is chosen from a group that are available that month and all the other follicles/eggs that are not chosen die off. When the follicle and egg mature and the follicle is ready to release the egg, the high estrogen levels cause the pituitary to release LH, producing a surge of this hormone that tells the follicle to release the egg. This process is known as ovulation.
Women are born with more than one to two million eggs that are stored in their ovaries. These eggs are depleted over the woman’s reproductive years.
When ovulation occurs, the egg is released from the ovary and travels into one of the fallopian tubes. It is here where the man’s sperm fertilizes the egg. The follicle that just released the egg becomes what is called a corpus luteum and it produces progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterine lining for implantation and helps to support an early pregnancy. If fertilization occurs, the embryo must travel down the tube to the uterus where it can implant itself into the endometrium. If the egg is not fertilized, the progesterone production declines and the uterus sheds the endometrial lining about two weeks after ovulation and the woman has a menstrual period.
Ovulation and Menstruation: Dr. Michele Evans
For women who have abnormal ovulation or irregular menstrual cycles, it may be difficult to become pregnant. As such, we recommend scheduling an appointment to review your medical history and conduct testing.